Intervention strategies, presented in the order from most to least effective according to the hierarchy of effectiveness, are described below. These strategies can be adapted for any care environment – acute care, continuing care, and primary care. A summary of the research related to interventions and some resources related to these interventions are presented in the Resource section.
A forcing function or constraint is a process or equipment design feature that makes it easy to do the right thing. Forcing functions can be built into free text data entry fields in electronic health records by not accepting certain abbreviations (forced correction) or by automatically converting short forms of communication into an acceptable format (auto-correction). One study showed that alerts with a forced correction feature decreased the use of abbreviations to a much greater extent than alerts with an auto-correction feature.46
A pharmacy purchasing solution to reduce abbreviation use is to avoid pharmaceuticals that are labelled with error-prone abbreviations or other short forms that could create a hazard. Report problem labelling to the manufacturer and ISMP Canada.47
Enforcement is a type of forcing function that is used with abbreviations or other unacceptable ordering practices. A policy is developed that requires clarification with the prescriber of orders containing an unapproved abbreviation before the order can be followed. While enforcement seems like a logical solution, evidence of effectiveness is lacking.48 Enforcement can create inter-professional friction, be time-consuming, and result in delayed therapy for patients.49 Enforcement is rarely the first option but some initiatives have resorted to it when other interventions did not reduce abbreviation use to the desired level.11
The use of information technology in healthcare is an example of a system-based strategy with a high level of effectiveness.31 Initially it was assumed that technology would eliminate the problem of unsafe abbreviations; however, experience has shown that while technology solves some problems, it creates other issues.41
Computerized prescriber order entry (CPOE) and electronic health/medical records
Computerized prescriber order entry (CPOE) and electronic prescribing help to standardize medication prescribing, eliminate illegible orders, and curtail the use of error-prone abbreviations. It can take the form of a stand-alone program or be embedded within an electronic health record. The system needs to be designed to minimize the use of abbreviations.42,43 Studies have shown that computer technology can significantly reduce the use of abbreviations in prescription orders, but it is not as effective in reducing abbreviation use with other forms of documentation in the medical record where free-text entry is common.13 When purchasing technology, look closely at the design and function of the system, including how information is displayed on screen and the safety features intended to minimize the use of abbreviations.44
Pharmacy dispensing systems and electronic reports
Pharmacy systems, labels, and reports need to be free of abbreviations and shortened medication names.45 Scrutinize new technologies and products prior to purchase to minimize the risk of introducing abbreviations into the dispensing system. The pharmacy can assist organizations by providing computer generated medication administration records (MAR) or more advanced electronic MAR (e-MAR) systems, which will help standardize medication entries and eliminate the need for staff to transcribe new or changed orders.
The use of protocols or pre-printed clinical order sets (paper or electronic) that do not use abbreviations can help structure medication ordering and support clear communication.40 Use check boxes on preprinted or electronic forms to limit the use of handwritten order components or free-text entry. The Resources section includes an example of a checklist developed by a health organization to assist their facilities in reviewing standing orders or medication protocols for adherence to order-writing standards.
Audit (measurement of current practice) and either general or personal feedback serves both an education and a reminder function. It can be an effective practice change tool. General feedback can take the form of a graph showing progress with measures related to the initiative over time (run chart) posted in an area where it can be seen by frontline providers. Personal feedback can be provided to individual providers showing how their use of abbreviations compares to that of aggregated data from their peers. Personalized measurement and feedback is most effective when an individual is under-performing, the feedback is given more than once, and is delivered by a supervisor or colleague. 39 Some studies noted that feedback can be very resource intensive and not always sustainable.11,28 Suggestions for using audit and feedback are presented below.
Most initiatives use some form of reminder or prompt to reinforce key messages from the educational sessions. This can take the form of a personal prompt such as a phone call or note (actions that are typically specified in a policy or guideline document), or a general reminder such as a poster, or a reminder of expected practice incorporated into the order sheet or order entry screens. Suggestions related to reminders are presented below.
The development of a policy is often the first step taken by an organization and is a prerequisite for any type of enforcement strategy. Policies and guidelines can address order writing or documentation in the health record in general, or specifically focus on abbreviation use. Abbreviation-focused policies can address the issue generally or target specific error-prone abbreviations or practices known to be an issue in that setting. However, developing and implementing a policy alone will not be successful in creating change. Other change strategies will be required to implement the policy. Suggestions for policy and guideline development are found below.
In order to be effective, educational interventions should be tailored to the needs of the group expected to change their practice. Several studies noted success with educational sessions for prescribers focused on safe prescribing practices or on abbreviation use in medication ordering.13,27,34-38
Organizations are replacing traditional in-person presentations with easily accessible e-learning modules. Both forms of education have their merits and challenges, and should be selected and designed carefully with the needs of the target group in mind. Suggestions for developing an education program or awareness campaign are presented below.